Authors Title of Study Summary of findings
Isoardi et al. Methamphetamine intoxication and acute kidney injury: A prospective observational case series Patients presenting with methamphetamine intoxication will commonly have elevated creatinine concentrations suggestive of acute kidney injury. The AKI is often mild and resolves with crystalloid therapy.
Maheshwari and Athiraman “Speedballing” to Severe Rhabdomyolysis and Hemodialysis in a 27-Year-Old Male Patient presented to ED after ingestion of “M30” pills purchased on the internet. Patient required regular hemodialysis secondary to rhabdomyolysis and fulminant kidney failure and is awaiting a transplant.
Pillai et al. Hypotension, Severe Hyperthermia (42°C), Rhabdomyolysis, and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Induced by Lethal Dose of Methamphetamine Patient presented to the ED after ingestion of 1.5 grams of methamphetamine. Patient presented with hypotension, hyperthermia, and rhabdomyolysis, eventually progressing to disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiorgan failure. The patient died in the ICU after hours of supportive care.
Darke et al. Prevalence and nature of cardiovascular disease in methamphetamine-related death: A national study Analysis of 894 autopsy reports for methamphetamine-related deaths showed increased rates of cardiovascular disease, more commonly seen in males and adults older than 35 with significant methamphetamine use.
Huang et al. Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke Events in Methamphetamine Users: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study A 10-year follow-up study of 1,315 inpatients treated for methamphetamine use was shown to have higher rates of cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular accidents and higher rates of complications of these diseases due to methamphetamine use.
Zhu et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of methamphetamine-associated versus non-methamphetamine intracerebral hemorrhage A 6-year study examined the clinical characteristics and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage in methamphetamine users vs. non-methamphetamine users. It was shown that despite demographical differences between the two groups, methamphetamine was not an independent predictor of poor outcomes.
He et al. Dopamine D1 receptors mediate methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic damage: involvement of autophagy regulation via the AMPK/FOXO3A pathway In an animal study, two groups of mice (Non-D1-Receptor Knockout and D1 Receptor Knockout) were given 4 days of high-dose methamphetamine or a D1 agonist. Results showed that methamphetamine groups showed loss of dopaminergic neurons and activation of autophagy pathways in non-knockout mice but no loss in the D1 receptor knockout mice group.
Yang et al. Altered fecal microbiota composition in individuals who misuse methamphetamine Analyzed fecal samples from 16 patients treated for methamphetamine use disorder. They found decreased diversity in the gut microbiome in methamphetamine users and higher concentrations of Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium correlated to persons with psychotic syndromes.
Zhao et al. Methamphetamine Induces Intestinal Inflammatory Injury via Nod-Like Receptor 3 Protein (NLRP3) Inflammasome Overexpression In Vitro and In Vivo An animal study in mice analyzed the cause of intestinal mucosal damage. Increased expression of NLRP3 and high expression of proinflammatory factors correlated with higher rates of inflammatory injury. When a NLRP3 inhibitor was added, lower rates of proinflammatory factors were noted.